Going to WAR for Points Above Replacement in Soccer / by Dave Laidig

By Dave Laidig (@davelaidig)

Baseball popularized the use of the Wins Above Replacement (WAR) statistic; representing a player’s estimated contribution to a team’s win tally above what a generic replacement would contribute. In this sense, it’s a roster management tool to support a keep/replace decision. However, WAR stats are often used by others for general performance comparisons. But soccer (or football if you like) does not have widespread use of a WAR-like statistic.

In soccer, performance indices are typically confidential and proprietary, making it difficult to verify their validity. Teams and analysts, understandably so, do not want to give away their competitive advantage. And those that are shared publicly, do not usually describe values in terms of team performance, or comparisons to replacements.

And this is our goal here; to offer a performance measure for each player, compared to readily available “replacement players” in similar positions. Because soccer awards three points for wins and one for draws, I’ll use Points Above Replacement (PAR) instead of wins. In other words, we’ll estimate how much a player has contributed to his team’s overall standings – when compared to an easily-acquired, hypothetical bench player.

The elements of this statistic require a (1) performance measure based on game actions, (2) a reference group, and (3) a method for relating individual performance to team results.

Performance Measure

For first part, I use the performance measure described in previous articles (see, Player Value Recap (2018), where more details can be found). As reported earlier, the performance measure adds possession context to match events. And match events are then scored based on whether the actions increase or decrease the chances of scoring – based on how much similar actions, in the same areas of the pitch, affected historical possession results. Further, the performance measure has the benefit of reporting values in goal equivalents (GE).

Define “Replacement Player Level”

The second step is to define a reference group for the performance measure. Appropriating from baseball definitions for replacement players, I too decided the replacement players should represent a player that could easily be found at a minimum salary. In the US, and for MLS players, their salary information is publicly available (or at least a consistent proxy for what their salary may be). As a result, I define a “replacement player level” to be the average performance for players with a base salary of $67,000 or less.

In MLS, a $67,000 salary is the minimum salary for the supplemental roster. To be fair, Byzantine MLS roster rules mean a 67k player could be on the senior roster, or supplemental roster, or reserve roster. And some players making more could be placed on the supplemental roster via homegrown player or Generation Adidas exceptions, and perhaps many more reasons. Unsurprisingly, I did not want to get caught up interpreting MLS roster rules. Thus, MLS players (in the 2017 & 2018 seasons) with base salaries of $67,000 or lower are used to set the replacement player performance level.

One additional element is required for reference groups; the on-field position. Different roles lend themselves to different performance levels. And the most meaningful comparisons are like for like.  As a result, I went through each match of the 2017 and 2018 seasons and identified the starting positions for players based on team formation. Substitutes are labeled “subs” – no attempt was made to assign a role to a substitute player (too labor intensive and subjective for subs).

The result led to twelve positional labels to cover forwards (LF, F, RF), midfielders (CAM, CM, LM, RM, DM), defenders (LB, RB, CB) and goalkeepers (GK). I used “CAM” for players lined up centrally between other midfielders and forwards; for example, the 1 in a 4-3-1-2. I used “DM” for central players lined up in the half space between defenders and other midfielders; such as the 2 in a 4-2-3-1.

Players were assigned to the position that they started in the most. If there was a tie, I used the position that best represented the roles the player assumed. For example, a hypothetical player with five starts at CM, five starts at LM, and three starts LB would be placed in the LM group – because he tied for starts between LM and CM, but most often plays on the left. If the role was still in doubt – or if their only experience was as a sub – then I placed in them in the central role of the first position group listed in the MLSPU salary spreadsheet (i.e., forwards are “F”, midfielders “CM” and defenders “CB”). This is not an exact science, but allows one to adjust if one has issues with my labels.

For practical purposes, I condensed the twelve positional labels into 6 replacement player reference groups. Attacking players consist of LF, RF, F, and CAM players. Wide midfielders are LM and RM players. The central midfielder category is made up of CM and DM midfielders. Fullbacks are the LB, and RB players. And the CB and GK categories consist of their namesakes respectively.

Replacement Group Cumulative Minutes N Avg Replacement Performance (GE per 90) Avg MLS performance
Attack (F,LF,RF,CAM) 21328 46 0.111 0.164
Wide Midfielder (LM,RM) 22381 31 0.074 0.156
Central Midfielder (CM,DM) 13335 49 0.052 0.116
Center Back (CB) 30891 43 0.12 0.117
Fullback (LB,RB) 42299 42 0.101 0.127
Goalkeeper (GK) 12196 20 -0.109 -0.007

There were 372 players on MLS rosters in 2017 and 2018 with base salaries below $67,000 (a player on both lists is counted twice). However, only 231 of these players registered minutes during their season and contributed to the replacement player level assessment.

In creating the replacement groups, we need to be mindful of potential selection bias. The 231 players that got on the field may not represent the 372 players making 67k or less. One can reasonably suggest the players with minutes are better than those that didn’t get minutes. In addition, the position groups are relatively small; and a handful of players with starting-level minutes dominate the values. For each group, between 13% and 26% of the players contribute over half the minutes.

For an illustration, 46 attacking players with over 21,000 minutes in 2017 or 2018 make up the replacement value. The weighted average of these players is 0.111 GE per 90 minutes, which is lower than the 0.164 GE league average for these positions. However, six players contributed over half of the minutes; Dominique Badji (’17), Daniel Salloi (’18), Corey Baird (’18), Cory Burke (’18), Latif Blessing (’17), and Daniel Salloi (’17) had over 11,000 minutes. And this group – with regular playing time – equaled the position average of 0.164 GE per 90 among them. Without these players, the replacements have a weighted average of 0.050 GE per 90 – a dramatic difference from the mean replacement value.

As a result, the replacement value can be reasonably criticized as artificially inflated. However, the replacement players pool does have variety; including some really good players that just need playing time to show it. Thus, I kept the replacement value as the weighted average for the entire group. All the players are compared to consistent standards which serves our purposes here; but further replication and larger samples are needed.

With the reference group defined, as best we can, we can easily contrast a player’s performance to the replacement player level. However, we still need to translate the goal equivalents to team performance.

Convert Goal Differential to Points

Fortunately, GE (or goal equivalents) is set up for a clean calculation to team performance. Team results are highly correlated to goal differential. At the match level, goal differential literally defines who wins. And at the season level, the relationship between the final point standings and season goal differential remains strong.

Looking back at the last eight seasons, where MLS teams played 34 games, season points and goal differential is correlated at 0.906. Of course, there are outliers, but the relationship is evident even from a quick glance at the plot.

1.png

With a simple linear regression, the formula for converting goal differential to season points becomes:

Estimated Season Points = 0.662 * (Goal Differential) + 46.6.

With our performance metric using goal equivalents as its unit, we can replace a player value with goal differential.  Thus, comparing a hypothetical player to a replacement player is:

[0.662 * (Player A value) + 46.6] – [0.662 * (Replacement Player value) + 46.6]

Simplified, this becomes:

0.662 * (Player A value – Replacement Player value) = PAR Player A

Player value is reported in the sum contributed over the course of the season. For my PAR calculation, the replacement player is assumed to have played the same number of minutes. One could justify unequal minutes to evaluate injuries, or expected playing time, etc. But I did not do that here.

Points Above Replacement 2018

Each player with minutes in 2018 was assigned a representative position using the same process describe above. I then compared the 2018 performance values to the relevant replacement groups.

For some context, a team of replacement players (in a 442 or a 4231) would be expected to earn about 32 points. This is close to the average of the bottom three teams each year (30 points). For European leagues without easily accessible player salary information, I have used the average of the bottom three teams as the replacement player level. Basically, the idea is that these teams are relegated and a fire sale of their players often occurs.

At the other end, a team of players in the top 10% of each position would be expected to earn about 78 points (NYRB set the season points record this year with 71 points). With salary caps, it is not surprising to see teams fall short of this level.

Among the individual players, we see that PAR is distinct from the player value metric. Josef Martinez led all players in MLS with the highest value per 90 minutes player. In other words, he had the highest performance rate for his time on the pitch. However, Josef is third in PAR as it’s dominated by goalkeepers at the top.

Some of the player value v. PAR difference is due to playing time. Stefan Frei contributed slightly more value over the season than Josef (14.73 goal equivalents and 14.33 respectively). But Frei also had an extra 120 minutes to earn the extra rating. Thus, the season long contribution from Frei gets the edge.

With respect to GK dominance, the largest factor is the replacement player level. A replacement attacker is still pretty good, with about 0.111 GE per 90. In contrast, the replacement GKs averaged -0.109 GE per 90.  And PAR incorporates the level of the hypothetical replacement. As a result, we had patterns like Almiron who contributed the equivalent of 13.31 goals himself, a stellar season result. But he only added a little over six points to the table above what a replacement body would offer (i.e., 6.39 PAR).

Player value and PAR offer two unique performance perspectives, with their use determined on the question to be answered. The following table reports the 2018 players, their position group, season contribution (player value in GE over the season), and 2018 PAR.

Player Team Position Group Season Value (in Goal Equivalents) PAR
Stefan FreiSeattleGK14.7312.3
Evan BushMontrealGK8.28.04
Josef MartinezAtlanta UnitedAttack14.336.99
Matt TurnerNew EnglandGK7.026.73
Luis RoblesNew YorkGK6.456.67
Maximiliano MoralezNew York City FCAttack13.516.51
Miguel AlmironAtlanta UnitedAttack13.316.39
Tim MeliaKansas CityGK4.835.85
Nick RimandoSalt LakeGK4.985.82
Graham ZusiKansas CityFB12.415.77
Joe WillisHoustonGK5.565.72
Romell QuiotoHoustonWideMid10.235.46
Carlos VelaLos Angeles FCAttack11.375.43
Valeri QazaishviliSan JoseWideMid10.555.41
Jeff AttinellaPortlandGK5.255.15
Alberth ElisHoustonWideMid9.674.98
Sebastian GiovincoTorontoAttack10.024.55
Bradley Wright-PhillipsNew YorkAttack10.024.42
Johnny RussellKansas CityAttack9.24.19
Joao PlataSalt LakeWideMid7.774.14
Romain AlessandriniL.A. GalaxyWideMid7.854.1
Ola KamaraL.A. GalaxyAttack9.523.96
Nicolas LodeiroSeattleAttack9.183.96
Diego ValeriPortlandAttack9.613.96
Bill HamidDC UnitedGK4.263.9
Jonathan OsorioTorontoCM/DM7.393.84
David VillaNew York City FCAttack8.053.83
Jesse GonzalezFC DallasGK3.243.78
Tyler MillerLos Angeles FCGK1.743.72
Diego FagundezNew EnglandAttack9.083.71
Yoshimar YotunOrlando CityCM/DM6.713.64
Michael BarriosFC DallasWideMid7.673.6
Diego RossiLos Angeles FCAttack8.843.59
Zoltan StieberDC UnitedWideMid7.033.59
Miguel IbarraMinnesota UnitedWideMid7.783.56
Cristian TecheraVancouverWideMid6.443.47
Michael BradleyTorontoCM/DM6.843.37
Jack PriceColoradoCM/DM6.683.29
Alphonso DaviesVancouverWideMid7.043.22
Santiago MosqueraFC DallasWideMid6.263.21
Albert RusnakSalt LakeAttack8.143.11
Sebastian BlancoPortlandAttack8.043.09
Sean DavisNew YorkCM/DM6.213.07
Tim HowardColoradoGK0.753.01
Aleksandar KataiChicagoWideMid6.532.92
Zack SteffenColumbusGK0.92.82
Haris MedunjaninPhiladelphiaCM/DM5.792.82
Andre BlakePhiladelphiaGK0.422.81
Julian GresselAtlanta UnitedWideMid6.742.73
FelipeVancouverCM/DM5.452.7
Hector VillalbaAtlanta UnitedWideMid5.612.69
Marc RzatkowskiNew YorkCM/DM4.982.68
Fabrice-Jean PicaultPhiladelphiaWideMid5.972.68
Sean JohnsonNew York City FCGK0.322.67
Jonathan dos SantosL.A. GalaxyCM/DM5.122.62
Ismael Tajouri-ShradiNew York City FCAttack5.322.42
Saphir TaiderMontrealWideMid6.122.4
Cristian PenillaNew EnglandWideMid6.082.39
Alejandro Romero GamarraNew YorkAttack6.722.37
Larrys MabialaPortlandCB7.472.35
Maximiliano UrrutiFC DallasAttack7.132.32
Keegan RosenberryPhiladelphiaFB6.82.32
Magnus ErikssonSan JoseWideMid5.632.29
Darwin QuinteroMinnesota UnitedAttack6.62.27
Cristian RoldanSeattleWideMid5.962.16
Wayne RooneyDC UnitedAttack5.42.15
James MarcinkowskiSan JoseGK2.632.12
Florian JungwirthSan JoseCM/DM4.652.1
Sebastian SaucedoSalt LakeAttack4.572.08
Pedro SantosColumbusWideMid4.992.04
Rasmus SchullerMinnesota UnitedCM/DM4.582
Brad GuzanAtlanta UnitedGK-0.81.99
Diego CharaPortlandCM/DM4.431.96
Darren MattocksDC UnitedAttack4.651.93
Yordy ReynaVancouverAttack5.371.92
Daniel RoyerNew YorkWideMid4.661.9
Yamil AsadDC UnitedWideMid4.961.9
Alejandro BedoyaPhiladelphiaCM/DM4.561.9
Leandro Gonzalez PirezAtlanta UnitedCB6.781.88
Felipe GutierrezKansas CityWideMid4.161.87
Andrew FarrellNew EnglandFB6.051.87
Latif BlessingLos Angeles FCWideMid4.441.86
IbsonMinnesota UnitedCM/DM4.051.81
Osvaldo AlonsoSeattleCM/DM3.811.78
Marco DelgadoTorontoCM/DM3.891.78
Victor RodriguezSeattleWideMid3.741.75
Samuel PietteMontrealCM/DM4.431.72
Harrison AffulColumbusFB61.71
Raul RuidiazSeattleAttack3.981.69
Matt BeslerKansas CityCB6.471.68
Luciano AcostaDC UnitedAttack6.141.68
David BinghamL.A. GalaxyGK-1.461.65
Milton ValenzuelaColumbusFB5.51.64
Victor VazquezTorontoCM/DM3.291.61
Ezequiel BarcoAtlanta UnitedWideMid3.931.61
Michael BoxallMinnesota UnitedCB6.551.6
Adama DiomandeLos Angeles FCAttack4.041.59
Gregory Van der WielTorontoCB5.61.55
Zarek ValentinPortlandFB5.581.52
Giovani dos SantosL.A. GalaxyAttack3.371.52
Oscar Boniek GarciaHoustonCM/DM3.581.51
Andy PoloPortlandWideMid3.711.51
Aaron LongNew YorkCB6.261.49
Bobby ShuttleworthMinnesota UnitedGK-0.721.47
Roland LamahFC DallasWideMid3.851.46
Russell CanouseDC UnitedCM/DM3.151.46
Nemanja NikolicChicagoAttack5.351.45
Ashley ColeL.A. GalaxyFB5.361.43
Laurent CimanLos Angeles FCCB51.43
Brad KnightonNew EnglandGK1.341.42
Diego RubioKansas CityAttack3.211.42
Borek DockalPhiladelphiaAttack5.181.41
Reggie CannonFC DallasFB5.641.41
Ronald MatarritaNew York City FCFB3.751.39
Mauro ManotasHoustonAttack5.61.39
Alexander RingNew York City FCCM/DM3.691.39
John McCarthyPhiladelphiaGK1.971.38
Brooks LennonSalt LakeFB5.481.36
Daniel SalloiKansas CityAttack5.11.36
Chris MuellerOrlando CityWideMid3.841.35
Ilie SanchezKansas CityCM/DM3.921.34
Ignacio PiattiMontrealAttack5.71.34
Edgar CastilloColoradoWideMid4.191.33
Anton TinnerholmNew York City FCFB5.221.33
Wil TrappColumbusCM/DM3.581.31
Richard SanchezChicagoGK-0.921.29
Paul ArriolaDC UnitedWideMid3.841.27
Darwin CerenHoustonCM/DM3.081.27
Matt HedgesFC DallasCB6.081.25
David GuzmanPortlandCM/DM2.491.25
Ryan HollingsheadFC DallasFB2.871.25
Tyler AdamsNew YorkCM/DM3.31.24
Tosaint RickettsTorontoAttack2.671.21
Rod FanniMontrealCB5.071.21
Dax McCartyChicagoCM/DM3.171.19
Steven BeitashourLos Angeles FCFB4.951.19
Nick HagglundTorontoCB3.821.18
Mark-Anthony KayeLos Angeles FCWideMid3.161.17
Tim ParkerNew YorkCB5.481.16
Wilfried ZahiboNew EnglandCM/DM2.941.16
Derrick EtienneNew YorkWideMid2.631.15
Raymon GaddisPhiladelphiaFB4.461.14
Justin MeramOrlando CityWideMid3.361.14
Alexander BonoTorontoGK-1.431.12
Kevin KratzAtlanta UnitedCM/DM2.051.12
AuroTorontoFB3.371.11
Walker ZimmermanLos Angeles FCCB4.991.11
Stefan ClevelandChicagoGK1.091.11
David AccamPhiladelphiaWideMid2.731.11
Jesus MedinaNew York City FCWideMid3.421.1
Gustav SvenssonSeattleCM/DM2.881.07
Jeff LarentowiczAtlanta UnitedCM/DM3.211
Mohamed El-MunirOrlando CityFB3.970.97
Gyasi ZardesColumbusAttack5.340.97
Harold CummingsSan JoseCB4.10.97
IlsinhoPhiladelphiaWideMid2.330.96
Mauro DiazFC DallasAttack2.450.92
Raheem EdwardsMontrealWideMid2.890.92
Oriol RosellOrlando CityCM/DM2.420.9
Dominique BadjiColoradoAttack3.910.9
Gerso FernandesKansas CityAttack3.530.9
Corey BairdSalt LakeAttack3.850.89
Jimmy MedrandaKansas CityFB2.220.89
Chris McCannAtlanta UnitedFB3.520.89
Roger EspinozaKansas CityWideMid3.840.89
Lucas JansonTorontoAttack2.40.89
Shea SalinasSan JoseFB3.470.87
Chris MavingaTorontoCB2.60.86
Scott CaldwellNew EnglandCM/DM2.20.85
Adam GrinwisOrlando CityGK0.680.84
Steve ClarkDC UnitedGK0.140.83
Cristhian ParedesPortlandWideMid2.480.83
Jack ElliottPhiladelphiaCB3.260.83
Jefferson SavarinoSalt LakeAttack4.990.81
Jahmir HykaSan JoseWideMid2.010.8
Patrick McLainChicagoGK0.70.8
Christopher DurkinDC UnitedCM/DM2.140.8
Jacori HayesFC DallasCM/DM1.830.8
Samuel ArmenterosPortlandAttack3.290.79
Sacha KljestanOrlando CityAttack4.470.77
Justin MorrowTorontoFB3.290.77
Michael ParkhurstAtlanta UnitedCB5.30.76
Lamine SaneOrlando CityCB3.080.76
Nicolas MezquidaVancouverAttack2.450.75
Marlon HairstonColoradoFB2.430.73
Benny FeilhaberLos Angeles FCWideMid3.570.73
Ismael TajouriNew York City FCWideMid1.330.72
Harry ShippSeattleWideMid2.150.72
Niko HansenColumbusWideMid1.980.71
Carlos GruezoFC DallasCM/DM2.630.71
Guram KashiaSan JoseCB2.580.7
Jimmy MaurerFC DallasGK-0.50.68
Yohan CroizetKansas CityWideMid2.450.68
Yangel HerreraNew York City FCWideMid1.970.65
Marco FarfanPortlandFB1.60.65
Adolfo MachadoHoustonFB3.040.64
Ebenezer OforiNew York City FCCM/DM2.120.64
Anibal GodoySan JoseCM/DM2.390.64
Junior MorenoDC UnitedCM/DM1.910.64
Tony TchaniChicagoCM/DM1.470.64
Sebastian LletgetL.A. GalaxyAttack3.410.62
Will JohnsonOrlando CityFB3.520.62
Magnus Wolff EikremSeattleWideMid1.470.61
Aly GhazalVancouverCM/DM1.70.61
Tesho AkindeleFC DallasWideMid1.460.6
Kyle BeckermanSalt LakeCM/DM2.530.6
Andrew WengerHoustonFB2.960.59
Eduard AtuestaLos Angeles FCCM/DM1.820.59
Philippe SenderosHoustonCB1.770.58
Bill Poni TuilomaPortlandCB1.910.58
Brent KallmanMinnesota UnitedCB3.680.57
Jay ChapmanTorontoWideMid1.740.57
Bacary SagnaMontrealFB1.820.57
Rolf FeltscherL.A. GalaxyFB2.380.57
Lucas MelanoPortlandAttack1.050.55
Jorge CorralesChicagoFB2.390.55
Andres FloresPortlandWideMid1.910.55
Ben SweatNew York City FCFB3.410.53
Emmanuel BoatengL.A. GalaxyWideMid1.870.53
Connor LadeNew YorkFB2.380.52
Russell TeibertVancouverCM/DM1.790.52
Tyrone MearsMinnesota UnitedFB1.830.5
Bastian SchweinsteigerChicagoCB4.580.5
Maynor FigueroaFC DallasCB2.230.49
Brett LevisVancouverFB1.850.48
Jaylin LindseyKansas CityFB1.380.47
Drew MoorTorontoCB1.520.47
Ryan TelferTorontoWideMid1.430.47
Ethan FinlayMinnesota UnitedWideMid1.210.47
Cristian LobatoKansas CityFB1.090.46
Tomas MartinezHoustonAttack3.860.45
Michael de LeeuwChicagoWideMid1.070.45
Adam LundqvistHoustonFB2.150.45
Andrew PutnaSalt LakeGK0.490.45
Liam RidgewellPortlandCB2.20.44
Francois AffolterSan JoseCB1.610.43
Aaron KovarLos Angeles FCWideMid1.120.43
Ricardo ClarkColumbusCM/DM1.040.43
Nick DeLeonDC UnitedFB1.920.43
Servando CarrascoL.A. GalaxyCM/DM1.260.42
Diego CamposChicagoFB2.080.42
Dave RomneyL.A. GalaxyCB3.970.42
Jakob NerwinskiVancouverFB3.320.42
Victor UlloaFC DallasCM/DM1.960.42
Mike GrellaColumbusWideMid1.050.41
Romario IbarraMinnesota UnitedAttack1.010.41
Lawrence OlumPortlandCM/DM1.620.41
Tommy SmithColoradoCB4.860.4
Scott SutterOrlando CityFB2.460.4
Cristian MartinezColumbusWideMid1.310.39
Michael MurilloNew YorkFB2.920.39
Luis ArgudoColumbusWideMid1.170.39
Jorge VillafanaPortlandFB1.370.39
Jonathan MensahColumbusCB3.90.39
Ryan MearaNew YorkGK0.210.37
Luis Felipe FernandesSan JoseCM/DM1.160.37
Ethan KutlerNew YorkFB0.680.37
Mitchell TaintorTorontoCB0.670.36
Ager AketxeTorontoCM/DM0.980.36
Fernando BobMinnesota UnitedCM/DM0.910.36
Luis SilvaSalt LakeAttack1.630.35
Cole BassettColoradoWideMid0.820.35
Joe BendikOrlando CityGK-2.370.34
Jeisson VargasMontrealAttack1.650.33
Jordy DelemSeattleCM/DM1.040.33
Eric CalvilloSan JoseWideMid0.630.33
Tommy ThompsonSan JoseCM/DM0.880.32
Dominic DwyerOrlando CityAttack3.410.31
Valentin CastellanosNew York City FCAttack1.050.3
Vincent BezecourtNew YorkCM/DM0.710.3
Yefferson QuintanaSan JoseCB1.510.3
Djordje MihailovicChicagoAttack1.180.3
Danny HoesenSan JoseAttack3.670.29
Oniel FisherDC UnitedFB2.640.29
Cory BurkePhiladelphiaAttack2.320.29
Sal ZizzoAtlanta UnitedFB0.640.28
Andrew CarletonAtlanta UnitedWideMid0.560.27
Jackson YueillSan JoseCM/DM1.190.27
Kevin GarciaHoustonCB1.990.27
Franck PangopMinnesota UnitedWideMid0.450.27
Tony RochaOrlando CityCM/DM0.910.26
Anthony FontanaPhiladelphiaAttack0.530.25
Mac SteevesHoustonGK0.330.25
Brek SheaVancouverWideMid1.750.24
Mohammed AbuColumbusCM/DM0.420.23
Wan KuzainKansas CityCM/DM0.550.23
Darlington NagbeAtlanta UnitedCM/DM1.560.23
Ike OparaKansas CityCB4.320.23
Will BruinSeattleAttack2.720.23
Danilo SilvaLos Angeles FCCB1.370.22
Isaac AngkingNew EnglandCM/DM0.360.22
Shkelzen GashiColoradoAttack1.440.21
Kevin EllisChicagoFB2.20.21
Ben SpencerTorontoAttack0.410.2
Zlatan IbrahimovicL.A. GalaxyAttack3.120.2
Marco DonadelMontrealCB0.430.19
Jay SimpsonPhiladelphiaAttack0.520.19
Claude DielnaNew EnglandCB2.160.19
Micheal AziraColoradoWideMid1.170.19
Quincy AmarikwaSan JoseAttack1.530.19
Anton NedyalkovFC DallasFB1.20.18
Luke MulhollandSalt LakeCM/DM0.330.18
SunnySalt LakeCM/DM1.140.17
Jesus FerreiraFC DallasAttack0.260.17
Ariel LassiterL.A. GalaxyAttack0.390.17
Franco EscobarAtlanta UnitedFB2.380.17
DaMarcus BeasleyHoustonFB2.920.16
Federico HiguainColumbusAttack3.320.16
Enzo MartinezColoradoCM/DM1.110.16
Romario WilliamsAtlanta UnitedAttack0.610.16
Joe MasonColoradoAttack1.230.15
Ali GhazalVancouverCM/DM0.340.15
Omar GaberLos Angeles FCFB0.550.15
Brandt BronicoChicagoCM/DM1.170.15
George BelloAtlanta UnitedWideMid0.380.15
Aurelien CollinNew YorkCB0.720.15
Daniel LovitzMontrealFB3.380.15
Joel QwibergSan JoseFB0.650.14
Gianluca BusioKansas CityWideMid0.380.14
Jerome ThiessonMinnesota UnitedFB1.550.14
Michael MancienneNew EnglandCB1.490.14
Andreas IvanNew YorkWideMid0.410.14
Daniel JohnsonChicagoWideMid0.440.13
Jonathan LewisNew York City FCAttack0.570.13
Earl Edwards Jr.Orlando CityGK-0.310.13
Alejandro SilvaMontrealAttack3.280.13
Alex CrognaleColumbusCB0.350.12
Eric AlexanderHoustonCM/DM1.20.12
Henry WingoSeattleWideMid0.320.12
Saad Abdul-SalaamNew York City FCFB0.510.12
Kevin MolinoMinnesota UnitedAttack0.360.12
Alec KannAtlanta UnitedGK0.060.11
Mariano MinoTorontoCM/DM0.180.11
James SandsNew York City FCCM/DM0.290.11
Shaft BrewerLos Angeles FCCM/DM0.190.11
Joao MoutinhoLos Angeles FCFB1.220.11
Fidel EscobarNew YorkCB0.690.11
Modou JadamaPortlandCB0.20.1
Kristoffer ReavesFC DallasCB0.390.1
Victor CabreraMontrealCB1.470.1
Abu DanladiMinnesota UnitedAttack0.820.1
Tristan BlackmonLos Angeles FCFB0.770.1
Chris SchulerOrlando CityCB1.260.1
Mathieu ChoiniereMontrealCM/DM0.210.1
Sebastien IbeaghaNew York City FCCB2.220.09
Ulises SeguraDC UnitedCM/DM0.930.09
Florian ValotNew YorkWideMid1.140.09
Carlos AscuesOrlando CityCB1.180.09
Luis CaicedoNew EnglandCM/DM1.720.08
Memo RodriguezHoustonWideMid0.740.08
Chris TierneyNew EnglandFB0.490.08
Chris Odoi-AtsemDC UnitedCB0.130.07
Abel AguilarFC DallasCM/DM0.190.07
Andreu FontasKansas CityCB0.240.07
Marc BurchMinnesota UnitedFB0.590.06
Sheanon WilliamsL.A. GalaxyFB0.30.06
Kelyn RoweNew EnglandWideMid1.50.06
Greg GarzaAtlanta UnitedWideMid0.90.05
Juan CabezasHoustonCM/DM0.260.05
Adam HenleySalt LakeFB0.390.05
LeonardoHoustonCB2.650.05
Simon ColynVancouverCM/DM0.080.05
Emiliano AmorKansas CityCB0.560.05
Fatai AlasheSan JoseCM/DM0.30.04
Jordon MutchVancouverWideMid0.810.04
Eduardo SosaColumbusAttack0.590.04
Cameron LindleyOrlando CityCM/DM0.190.04
Tomas ConechnyPortlandAttack0.170.04
Matt PolsterChicagoFB0.220.04
Matthew LampsonMinnesota UnitedGK-1.010.04
Mark SegbersNew EnglandCB0.130.04
Christopher WehanSan JoseCM/DM0.180.04
Hassan NdamNew YorkCB0.190.04
Derrick JonesPhiladelphiaCM/DM0.310.04
Jose HernandezAtlanta UnitedCM/DM0.060.03
Eric BirdHoustonWideMid0.330.02
Aaron MaundVancouverCB1.340.02
Matthew RealPhiladelphiaFB0.310.02
Aidan DanielsTorontoCM/DM0.040.02
Edward OpokuColumbusWideMid0.170.02
David ChoiniereMontrealCM/DM0.030.01
ArturColumbusCM/DM1.710.01
Jason HernandezTorontoCB0.760.01
Connor MaloneyColumbusCB0.050.01
Alexander CallensNew York City FCCB3.890.01
Pablo RuizSalt LakeFB0.650.01
Dane KellyDC UnitedAttack0.010
Louis Beland-GoyetteMontrealCM/DM0.070
Nick BeslerSalt LakeCB2.070
Jared JeffreyDC UnitedCM/DM00
Taylor PeaySalt LakeCB00
Francisco CalvoMinnesota UnitedCB3.330
Ema TwumasiFC DallasAttack0.05-0.01
Mohammed AdamsChicagoCM/DM0.55-0.01
Stefano BonomoNew YorkAttack0-0.01
Gilbert FuentesSan JoseCM/DM-0.01-0.01
Jose VillarrealOrlando CityAttack0.06-0.01
Christian DeanChicagoCB0.22-0.01
Joao PedroL.A. GalaxyCM/DM0.03-0.01
Benjamin MinesNew YorkWideMid0.06-0.01
Lamar NeagleSeattleAttack0.14-0.01
Brandon VazquezAtlanta UnitedAttack0.13-0.01
Aaron HerreraSalt LakeFB1.46-0.02
Paxton PomykalFC DallasWideMid0.1-0.02
Cedric HountondjiNew York City FCCB-0.02-0.02
Andre HortaLos Angeles FCWideMid0.27-0.02
Andrew Wheeler-OmiunuAtlanta UnitedCM/DM-0.02-0.02
Jordan HarveyLos Angeles FCFB2.56-0.02
David HorstSalt LakeCB0.41-0.02
Hector JimenezColumbusFB0.77-0.02
MaximinianoMinnesota UnitedCM/DM0.33-0.02
Shawn BarrySalt LakeFB0.2-0.03
Rodrigo PachecoLos Angeles FCAttack-0.01-0.03
Yeferson QuintanaSan JoseCB0.02-0.03
Kevin PartidaSan JoseFB0.29-0.03
RJ AllenOrlando CityFB1.13-0.04
Harrison HeathMinnesota UnitedWideMid0.06-0.04
Cristian Casseres JrNew YorkCM/DM0-0.04
Tommy ReddingNew YorkCB0.07-0.04
Victor ArboledaPortlandAttack-0.01-0.04
Warren CreavallePhiladelphiaCM/DM0.38-0.04
Graham SmithKansas CityCB0.19-0.04
Samuel VinesColoradoCB0-0.04
Julian Dunn-JohnsonTorontoCB0.08-0.04
Amro TarekOrlando CityCB2.36-0.04
Kim Kee-HeeSeattleCB3.39-0.04
Vytautas AndriuskeviciusPortlandCB-0.02-0.04
Maxime ChanotNew York City FCCB2.14-0.05
Pierre Da SilvaOrlando CityCM/DM-0.04-0.05
Richie LaryeaOrlando CityWideMid0.17-0.05
Zachary HerivauxNew EnglandCM/DM0.03-0.05
Josh WilliamsColumbusCB2.03-0.05
Stefan AignerColoradoCM/DM-0.07-0.05
Julio CascantePortlandCB2.42-0.05
Kwame AwuahNew York City FCCM/DM0.01-0.05
Marcel de JongVancouverFB1.59-0.05
Cristhian MachadoNew EnglandCM/DM-0.02-0.06
Dillon PowersOrlando CityCM/DM-0.05-0.06
Jimmy OckfordSan JoseCB1.45-0.07
Ricky Lopez-EspinSalt LakeAttack-0.06-0.07
Demar PhillipsSalt LakeFB0.32-0.07
Kharlton BelmarKansas CityAttack-0.01-0.07
Baggio HusidicL.A. GalaxyCM/DM0.02-0.07
Carlos RivasNew YorkAttack0.24-0.07
Marco UrenaLos Angeles FCAttack1.24-0.07
Calum MallaceLos Angeles FCCM/DM-0.09-0.08
Bryan MeredithSeattleGK-0.23-0.08
Grant LillardChicagoCB0.69-0.08
Kemar LawrenceNew YorkFB2.79-0.08
Olivier MbaizoPhiladelphiaFB-0.03-0.09
Jalen RobinsonDC UnitedFB0.26-0.09
Mikey AmbroseAtlanta UnitedFB0.73-0.1
Victor GiroOrlando CityFB0.37-0.1
Drew ConnerChicagoCM/DM0.14-0.1
Emrah KlimentaL.A. GalaxyFB0.03-0.1
Caleb CalvertColoradoAttack-0.1-0.1
Handwalla BwanaSeattleWideMid0.28-0.1
Krisztian NemethNew EnglandAttack1-0.11
Jukka RaitalaMontrealCB3.07-0.11
Brian WrightNew EnglandAttack0.21-0.11
Joshua PerezLos Angeles FCAttack-0.13-0.11
Bruno MirandaDC UnitedAttack-0.03-0.12
Adam JahnColumbusAttack-0.06-0.12
Reto ZieglerFC DallasCB3.45-0.13
A.J. DeLaGarzaHoustonFB0.24-0.13
Sean FranklinVancouverFB0.82-0.13
Jared WattsHoustonCB0.55-0.14
Dominic OduroMontrealAttack-0.08-0.14
Wyatt OmsbergMinnesota UnitedCB0.35-0.14
Ayo AkinolaTorontoAttack-0.14-0.14
Fanendo AdiPortlandAttack0.87-0.15
Alexi GomezMinnesota UnitedWideMid0.93-0.15
Patrick MullinsDC UnitedAttack0.53-0.15
Rafael RamosChicagoFB-0.09-0.15
Alex MuylNew YorkWideMid0.94-0.15
Nick LimaSan JoseFB3.4-0.15
Shamit ShomeMontrealWideMid-0.01-0.16
Yura MovsisyanChicagoAttack-0.15-0.16
Luis GilHoustonCM/DM-0.05-0.16
Donny ToiaOrlando CityFB0.02-0.17
Bernie Ibini-IseiVancouverWideMid0.11-0.17
Lalas AbubakarColumbusCB2.24-0.18
Frantz PangopMinnesota UnitedAttack-0.06-0.18
Gaston SauroColumbusCB0.47-0.18
Kip ColveyColoradoWideMid-0.1-0.18
Carter ManleyMinnesota UnitedFB0.32-0.19
Collin MartinMinnesota UnitedCM/DM0.04-0.19
Fabian HerbersPhiladelphiaWideMid0.08-0.2
Alex RoldanSeattleWideMid0.38-0.2
Juan AgudeloNew EnglandWideMid1.05-0.2
Waylon FrancisSeattleFB0.41-0.2
Kyle DuncanNew YorkFB0.12-0.2
Rudy CamachoMontrealCB1.9-0.2
Gabriel SomiNew EnglandFB0.91-0.21
Chad MarshallSeattleCB3.33-0.22
Tomas Hilliard-ArceL.A. GalaxyCB0.07-0.23
Zac MacMathColoradoGK-0.56-0.23
Luis LopezLos Angeles FCGK-0.47-0.23
Shane O'NeillOrlando CityCB1.23-0.24
Nouhou ToloSeattleFB2.06-0.24
Jeremy EbobissePortlandAttack0.24-0.24
Erik HurtadoVancouverAttack0.31-0.24
Jonathan SpectorOrlando CityCB1.12-0.25
Sebastian IbeaghaNew York City FCCB0.01-0.26
Alfredo OrtunoSalt LakeAttack-0.24-0.27
Daniel SteresL.A. GalaxyCB1.48-0.27
Chris PontiusL.A. GalaxyWideMid0.89-0.28
Christian RamirezLos Angeles FCAttack1.71-0.28
Sam NicholsonColoradoWideMid1.38-0.29
Nicolas HaslerTorontoWideMid1.07-0.29
Chris WondolowskiSan JoseAttack2.59-0.29
Marquinhos PedrosoFC DallasFB0.96-0.29
Seth SinovicKansas CityFB1.51-0.3
Angelo RodriguezMinnesota UnitedAttack0.68-0.31
Eloi AmagatNew York City FCCM/DM-0.2-0.31
Guillermo HaucheNew EnglandWideMid-0.34-0.33
Arturo AlvarezHoustonWideMid-0.13-0.33
Mark McKenziePhiladelphiaCB1.79-0.34
Mason ToyeMinnesota UnitedAttack0.03-0.34
Collen WarnerMinnesota UnitedCM/DM0.25-0.34
Ian HarkesDC UnitedCM/DM-0.3-0.34
Lee NguyenLos Angeles FCWideMid1.1-0.35
Anthony BlondellVancouverAttack0.34-0.36
Brian WhiteNew YorkAttack-0.25-0.36
Tony AlfaroSeattleCB-0.25-0.36
Jon BakeroChicagoAttack-0.26-0.38
Ronaldo PenaHoustonAttack-0.24-0.38
Anthony Jackson-HamelMontrealAttack0.19-0.39
Michael CianiL.A. GalaxyCB1.7-0.4
Pablo AranguizFC DallasWideMid-0.35-0.41
Axel SjobergColoradoCB1.31-0.41
Liam FraserTorontoCM/DM-0.25-0.41
Jorgen SkjelvikL.A. GalaxyCB3.04-0.42
Jordan McCrarySeattleFB0.45-0.42
Johan BlombergColoradoCM/DM0.34-0.44
Justen GladSalt LakeCB3.48-0.44
Elliot CollierChicagoWideMid0.11-0.46
Thomas McNamaraNew York City FCWideMid-0.38-0.47
Eric RemediAtlanta UnitedCM/DM-0.05-0.48
Stefano PinhoOrlando CityAttack0.16-0.48
Miles RobinsonAtlanta UnitedCB-0.3-0.48
Roman TorresSeattleCB0.25-0.5
Alvas PowellPortlandFB1.7-0.5
Chinedum OnuohaSalt LakeCB-0.62-0.5
Eriq ZavaletaTorontoCB1.3-0.52
Danilo AcostaSalt LakeFB0.28-0.54
Clint DempseySeattleAttack0.37-0.55
Bismark BoatengColoradoWideMid0.26-0.55
Giles BarnesColoradoAttack-0.09-0.55
Jon KempinColumbusGK-1.43-0.56
Josue ColmanOrlando CityWideMid0.12-0.56
Damir KreilachSalt LakeCM/DM0.85-0.57
Eric MillerMinnesota UnitedFB0.53-0.57
Luis SolignacChicagoWideMid-0.27-0.59
Doneil HenryVancouverCB0.92-0.59
Brandon VincentChicagoFB2.47-0.59
Marcelo SilvaSalt LakeCB1.3-0.61
Bradford JamiesonL.A. GalaxyWideMid-0.69-0.61
Dairon AsprillaPortlandAttack0.03-0.61
Perry KitchenL.A. GalaxyCM/DM0.49-0.62
Jordan HamiltonTorontoAttack0.2-0.62
Jonathan CampbellChicagoCB0.48-0.64
Cristian HiguitaOrlando CityCM/DM-0.16-0.64
Kortne FordColoradoCB0.6-0.67
Matteo MancosuMontrealAttack0.42-0.68
Antonio Mlinar DelameaNew EnglandCB1.12-0.68
Michael PetrassoMontrealFB-0.1-0.69
Brad SmithSeattleFB-0.55-0.71
Auston TrustyPhiladelphiaCB3.18-0.75
Chris DuvallMontrealFB0.25-0.77
Kendall WastonVancouverCB2.01-0.78
Marcus EppsPhiladelphiaWideMid-0.68-0.8
Brandon ByeNew EnglandFB0.54-0.82
Deklan WynneColoradoCB1.59-0.85
Khiry SheltonKansas CityAttack0.51-0.86
Steve BirnbaumDC UnitedCB3.06-0.86
Brad StuverNew York City FCGK-1.57-0.88
Kofi OpareDC UnitedCB-0.1-0.88
Paul ChristensenAtlanta UnitedGK-1.42-0.89
Alan GordonChicagoAttack-0.2-0.89
Johan KappelhofChicagoCB2.3-0.9
Rodney WallaceNew York City FCWideMid-0.69-0.94
Danny WilsonColoradoCB1.27-0.99
Joseph MoraDC UnitedFB1.5-1.01
Alejandro FuenmayorHoustonCB0.98-1.03
Kellyn AcostaFC DallasWideMid-0.04-1.04
Kelvin LeerdamSeattleFB0.74-1.05
Dillon SernaColoradoAttack0-1.08
Jack McBeanColoradoAttack-0.25-1.09
Jake GleesonPortlandGK-2.35-1.09
Stefan MarinovicVancouverGK-4.5-1.1
Jose AjaVancouverCB0.51-1.1
Ashtone MorganTorontoFB-0.48-1.12
Jo Inge BergetNew York City FCAttack0.34-1.12
Brian RoweVancouverGK-2.94-1.16
FabinhoPhiladelphiaFB-0.93-1.17
Jalil AnibabaNew EnglandCB2.05-1.18
Jozy AltidoreTorontoAttack-0.74-1.23
Chris SeitzHoustonGK-2.63-1.27
Dejan JakovicLos Angeles FCCB-0.3-1.27
Cristian ColmanFC DallasAttack-1.22-1.35
Frederic BrillantDC UnitedCB1.05-1.37
David OustedDC UnitedGK-4.14-1.41
Ken KrolickiMontrealWideMid-0.88-1.5
Efrain JuarezVancouverCM/DM-1.63-1.55
C.J. SapongPhiladelphiaAttack0.64-1.55
Yannick BoliColoradoAttack-1.35-1.57
Niki JacksonColoradoAttack-1.97-1.73
Tyler DericHoustonGK-2.98-1.82
Andrew TarbellSan JoseGK-6.22-1.88
Kei KamaraVancouverAttack-0.15-2.01
Clint IrwinTorontoGK-4.1-2.18
Teal BunburyNew EnglandAttack-0.18-2.33